From The Alpha and the Omega - Chapter Three
by Jim A. Cornwell, Copyright © 1995, all rights reserved
" Sumerian Information of the Annunaki -- compared to the Anakim "

Sumerian Information of the Annunaki
(Sumerian equal to the Genesis Anakim)
Erech was founded before 4,000 B.C.

   As we all know the Sumerians and Assyrians went to great detail to preserve the memorials of 270,000 years or seven previous ages, but not any independent evidence outside of the Bible exist showing that Abram ever even lived.    Even the Hebrew scholars had to assume he was born at Ur about 2,000 B.C.

   Annunaki were seven judges of hell (nether world), children of the god Anu, who also sat before the throne of Ereshkigal (the wife of Nergal), she was the daughter of Demeter, Greek Persephone, Roman Proserpine, Gnostic Kore in other mythology.    The Annunaki are regarded by some as the Sumerian Ďfates,í where they waited at the gates of hell to judge the newly-arrived souls.    The "Fates" were associated with Ursa Major, or the Pleiades (seven sisters) who were similar to the seven Hathors. Ananke the satellite of Jupiter that is 14th in distance from the planet [Greek Ananke, mother of Adrasteia (alias Nemesis a goddess of destiny, Egyptian Shait), distributor of rewards and punishments, by Jupiter, from ananke, necessity]. Adrasteia and Ida were Nymphs and daughters of the Cretan king, who cared for Zeus in a cave when he was a baby.

Ishtar Star Symbol
even retain their names, being collectively known as "Great Ones," Annunaki.    The erudite Berossus (Chaldean priest of Bel at Babylon 250 B.C.) in his lost Babyloniaca apparently believed the Tower of Babel was built by Giants ages ago, and it also stated that a war arose between Cronus and Titan.
Chapel of Anu
zaqaru, meaning to be high or raised up; hence the top of a mountain, or a staged tower).    A drawing of the Ziggurat of Anu (Lord of the Great Above) at Uruk (Erech) is crowned by a "white temple" of the Jamdat Nasr period, probably built shortly before 3000 B.C.    They were designed to elevate the mind and heart to supernal contemplation and provide a scale of descent for the gods to come down to earth.    Erech (Heb. Ďerekh) was a city of ancient Babylonia founded by Nimrod, the Babylonian form of the name is Uruk.    The modern site is called Warka and is located near the Euphrates River, forty miles NW of Ur.    Erech was the home of Gilgamesh, the hero of the great Akkadian epic.    Archaeologists have found that this city was one of the oldest of Babylonia, founded before 4000 B.C.    One of the earliest dynasties of the Sumerians ruled from Erech, it boasted the first ziggurat, or temple tower, and began the use of clay cylinder seals.    The ziggurat at Ur is made on the outside of baked brick set in bitumen.    The stele of Ur-Nammu is a contemporary record of the building of this ziggurat.    The Tower of Babel was a ziggurat (Gen. 11:1-9).
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   Ur-Nammu the restored stele of Ur-Nammu from Ur, c. 2060-1955 B.C., shows the Ur-Nammu Law Code was produced by the founder of the third dynasty or Ur and builder of the best preserved ziggurat in Mesopotamia.    He ruled from 2112 to 2095 B.C.    Twenty-nine laws are extant, which leads to the Hammurabi Code in 1728 to 1686 with 282 laws after receiving them from the god Shamash.    The ziggurat at Choga Zambil, southeast of Susa, was built c. 1280 B.C. in honor of the otherwise Elamite god In-Shushinak (Iskur, Addad, Haddad, Rimmon, Rammon, Adonis, Baal in the Bible).

   The strongest body of archaeological evidence, combined with the biblical account, favors the ruins of Etemenanki (Sumerian name, "House of the Foundation of Heaven and Earth") as the likely spot for the Tower of Babel.    This is located in the country of Iraq, in the city of Babylon, fifty miles south of todayís Baghdad.    It was once believed to be Birs Nimrud in Borsippa or modern Es-sahen.

   Anuís father was Anshar (Sumerian god of the celestial world who was born of the serpents Lakhmu and Lakhamu), as the sky and male principle.    Since Anshar mated with his sister Kishar (Anuís mother, she became the earth and female principle), thus they produced the great gods.    Anshar organized the gods in their fight against Tiamat but did no fighting himself.

Chapel of Ea
human form with water gushing from his shoulders or from a vase he carried (The zodiac image of Aquarius).    Ea, "House of the water," with his divine word was creator of mankind from clay with the help of the Sumerian goddess Aruru (see the Akkadian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh and the wild man Enkidu).    Ea was also patron of all arts, and the chief god of the Mesopotamian city of Eridu.    In ancient times the year began with the entrance of the Sun into the constellation of Aries, March 21, and ended in February, the name "Anno" (Medieval Latin : anno, in the year) was given in honor of Oannes, identified with Janus (Roman god of gates and doorways, depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions or past wisdom and future knowledge), who taught the Chaldeans science and the arts and warned them of the Flood.    In Palestine Oannes was under the name Dagon.
The symbol of Marduk

   Nanshe (symbol was a vase in which swam a fish) was the goddess of springs and waterways who was worshipped in Eridu and Lagash.    It is interesting that the Greek Naiads are nymphs of river and springs.

   Anuís wife was Antu, and their children were the Annunaki.

   Despite Anuís indifference to men he had a fine temple at Uruk with an unusual twin towered ziggurat dating from 3000 B.C.    As time went on Anuís authority waned as the result of the success of the gods like Enlil.    Anu as Enlil or Elil God of earth (nature) and wind (air and hurricanes, floods), child of An (heaven) and Ki (earth) whom he separated.

Symbols of the Babylonian Gods

   One of Anuís sons was Gibil, alias Nusku (Nunska) who was an Assyrian fire god as in one of the four elements.    Gibil was called governor of gods and men.    His special task was to sit in judgment over the souls of men who in their lives had been unjust judges.

   One of Anuís daughters was Gulu the ancient name for the Earth Mother goddess, who was a consort of Ninurta (derived from Ningursu, was the son of Enlil and the god of war, who in Sumer and Akkad was the god of the constellation known as Orion).    The name "Orion" is believed to have originated in the Euphrates area of ancient Akkad, and is derived from the Akkadian "Uru-Anna" (light of heaven).    There is that connection to Anu again.    Over time, the language corrupted to "Aryan," which is what the ancient Persians called themselves, and which became the modern idiom, "Iran."

   In Hebrew the word for Orion is Kesiyl, kes-eel'; from Heb. kasal, kaw-sal', a primary root, properly to be fat, fig. silly, be foolish, but also any notable constellation, specially Orion (as if a burly one); other sources claim the Heb. Chesil, Kesil, as Orion means "A Strong One" or "A Hero," and is mentioned in Job 9:9 (Which maketh Arcturus, Orion, and Pleiades, and the chambers of the south).

   Ancient Arabs knew the constellation of Orion as Al Jauzah and later Al Jabbar (meaning "the giant" or "great").    Arab astronomer Al Babadur said the constellation was originally called the "Strong One," but another, Scaliger, affirmed the name was a corruption of the Arab "Al Shuja" (the Snake).    In the early astronomical works of Bayer and Chilmead, that word was translated as "Asugia" -- the "madman."    Under the star names of Hydra, the Sea Serpent: there is other information that refers to the name -- Minchir al Sugia which means "Tearing To Shreds of the Deceiver."    Under the star names of Lepus is Greek letter of Beta with Bold and UnderlineNihal which is adapted from the Arabic for "the camels slaking their thirst."    The name originally applied to the stars Greek Alpha Beta Gamma and Delta.    Another meaning of Nihal is "The Mad."

   Under the star names of Sagittarius is Greek letter Sigma with Bold and Underline Nunki which is an untranslated ancient Babylon proper name.    The Babylonians thought this star was the heavenly counterpart to their city Ridu, sacred to the god Ea (forms the handle of the teapot with Tau).    In the Akkadian language, Sagittarius is called Nunki which means "The Prince of the Earth."    The Sumerian King List mentions five cities existing before the Flood; Eridu, Bad-tibiria, Larak, Sippar, and Shuruppak.    As you would suspect Ridu is the same as Eridu.

   Ninurta in the Epic of Gilgamesh helps to flood the earth by throwing down the dykes and breaking dams.    Here Gula helped breathe life into mankind.    Ninurta and Guluís wedding feast was celebrated on New Yearís day.

   Seen in the Kudurra (a Babylonian boundary stone) in the stage below ground sits the goddess Gulu, (the earth-goddess; also Ninmah, goddess of the underworld), where the cosmic serpent begins to rise.    She is the patroness of herbs, healing, life, as her flowered garment shows.    Hands lifted in prayer, she sits with her dog, defender of homes, while before her a Scorpion Archer mounts guard at the uttermost bound of the earth (cosmic sea), to defend against demonic powers and protect the rising and setting sun.

Gula and the Scorpion Archer

   In the twentieth century Sir Leonard Wooley discovered at the mount of alíUbaid near Ur and ancient temple dedicated by A-anni-pad-da, (king of Ur, son of Mes-anni-pad-da, who was the founder of the third dynasty after the Flood in the Sumerian lists of sovereigns) to the goddess Nin-Kharsag.    The first of the divine kings was Dungi, the son of the goddess Ninsun.

   Damkina or Damgalnunna; alias Ninka, goddess wife of Ea -- Sumerian god of sweet waters.    As Ninlil wife of Enlil; as Ninki wife of Enki (Ea).    The temple of Ninmah, goddess of the underworld, was built by Ashurbanipal near the Ishtar gate.

   Below are the guardians of the four world quarters.

Guardians of the Four World Quarters

   Nergal (arrow shooting god of II Kings 17:30) a Babylonian god and king of the Underworld "Lord of the great dwelling."    When ejected from heaven he invaded the underworld with fourteen demons.    His wife was Ereshkigal (possibly Gulu).    During the great flood he tore away the mast of the ship in which Utanapishtim (the Babylonian Noah) escaped and was saved along with his family and specimens of all manner of animals.    Nergal is also the god of plague with Namtar (evil god, negative aspect of fate, disease bringer), his symbols are a sword and a lionís head.    From the contract tablets found by Rassam at Tel-Ibrahim it appears that the ancient name of Cuthah was Gudua or Kuta.    Itís ruins were 3,000 feet in circumference and 280 feet high.    In it was a sanctuary dedicated to Ibrahim (Abraham).    Both the city and its great temple, the later dedicated to Nergal, appear to date back to Sumerian times.    Nergal (Heb. nereghal, a Babylonian deity of destruction and disaster, associated with the planet Mars (god of war and agriculture -- See also Hercules, Ares -son of Zeus, Zivis, Zio, Tiwas, Tiw).

   A cylinder seal from Larsa, an ancient Sumerian city, c. 2360-2180 B.C., shows the god Nergal standing with one foot upon the body of an enemy.    In his right hand is a weapon with wings or flames ready to strike its victim and in his left hand a weapon touching the ground which looks like a pruning hook or sickle.    A picture of him will be seen in the next chapter.

   Ninurta in Sumer and Akkad was god of war and the god of the constellation Orion.    Orion was the son of Poseidon.    The motif of sibling rivalries was of Sumerian Enki verses Enlil, equal to Greek Poseidon verses Zeus, or Roman Neptune verses Jove.

   Irra is an aspect of Nergal, given the task of inflicting disease on mankind at the request of the gods.

   Note: Imdugud a rain god worshipped in the area of the Ur of the Chaldees (west bank of the Euphrates).    He was shaped like an eagle with a lionís head, with wings which are like the clouds.    In about 3000 B.C., Gudea a man who claimed that the god appeared to him in a dream and told him to build a temple at Lagash.    Gudea did so.    Sargon (2350 B.C.) claimed conquest of Elam in his day.    Later on, about 2280, an Elamite king invaded Babylonia and took back much spoil.    Gudea, a ruler of the city of Lagash, about 2100 mentions that the Elamites collected some of the timbers he used in constructing the temple of Ningirsu (Ningursu), the god of Lagash.

   Also see Ningursu (with a reference to Ninurta) who was a god of irrigation and fecundity, born of a she-goat, and god of the Sumerian city-state of Lagash.    He was as tall as the sky with a godís head and beard, holding an eagle and a club with a net full of human captives, and hurricanes for feet.    He was flanked by a pair of lions.    He appeared to Gudea to build him a temple at Lagash.

   A note here about Danu a (Irish) Celtic mother goddess of a brood of gods the Tuatha De Danann (Brian, Iuchar, and Iucharbar) also known as Anu or Ana - plenty.    She is connected with Aine of Knockaine, a moon goddess of crops and cattle.

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