From The Alpha and the Omega - Volume III
by Jim A. Cornwell, Copyright © 12/18/1998, all rights reserved
"History of Philosophy
The Appeal to Reason, 1600's"
In the 1600's, human reason was elevated to high authority and philosophy shifted from the supernatural to the natural.
Naturalism is the philosophical system of thought holding that all phenomena can be explained in terms of natural causes and laws without attributing moral, spiritual, or supernatural significance to them.
In theology it is the doctrine that all religious truths are derived from nature and natural causes and not from revelation. Axioms became the starting point of ones thought.
- Rene Descartes 1596-1650, a French mathematician and philosopher, who was considered the father of analytic geometry, he formulated the Cartesian system of coordinates. His philosophy is based on the rationalistic premise "I think, therefore I am." His system of mathematics would also include metaphysics. He declared that the existence of God could be proved because people could not have the idea unless this idea had originally come from God. He had a basic dualism between the mind and the body.
- Pantheism is the belief that God and the whole universe are one and the same thing and that God does not exist as a separate spirit. It teaches that God is the whole universe, the human mind, the seasons, and all things and ideas that exist.
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), who was a Dutch philosopher and theologian whose controversial pantheistic doctrine advocated an intellectual love of God. He was deeply religious and probably a mystic with views that upset both Christian and Jewish contemporaries, who forced him to leave Amsterdam. His Book, Ethics, is written like a geometry problem. It starts with axioms and ends with strict determinism.
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