From The Alpha and the Omega - Chapter Four
by Jim A. Cornwell, Copyright © 1995, all rights reserved
"The Archaic Period"

   The Archaic Period begins a new cycle representing the Unification or the First Dynasty of Egypt around 3100 B.C., and one must remember that in history the Kish Chronicle (Babylonian version) is dated at 2200 B.C.

SARGON‘S ELDEST SON (Lost History and achievements in Egypt)

   In the Protodynastic Period (Dyn. 1-2; 3200-3000 or 3100-2700 B.C. the Early Period).

   From Egyptian Civilization Its Sumerian origin & Real Chronology And Sumerian origin of Egyptian Hieroglyphs, by Louis A. Waddell, copyright 1933.
   Waddell contends, Menes (Manj-the-Warrior) identifies with: The textbook says "Menes appears to be a personage of legend." King Manis of Mesopotamia. He was Sumerian Governor of Elam and the Indus Valley colony before he revolted against his father. He then seized and annexed Egypt from his father-emperor, as shown in the Indian chronicles. Then he established the First Egyptian Dynasty, c. 2704 B.C., with a fully-fledged Sumerian civilization.

   According to the tradition of Manetho, the first king of united Egypt was Menes, who came from Thinis in Upper Egypt, united the two lands, and established his capital at Memphis in about 3200-3100 B.C. Some speculate that he was the eldest son of Sargon.

   This definitely shows that Taurus was a period of confusion with a range of 1927 years. Menes may be a legendary person, or the name may be one associated with Narmer or Aha.

   From Egypt’s Making The Origins of Ancient Egypt 5000-2000 B.C., by Michael Rice, copyright 1990.
   Michael Rice in Chapter 2 page 39 states "The Egyptians were so expert in the practice of irrigation that Menes-Narmer himself, displaying a positively heroic enthusiasm for hydraulic engineering, is said to have diverted the course of the Nile to found his capital city at Memphis, near the borders of Upper and Lower Egypt."

   Rice in Chapter 3 page 98-100 inserts "The shrines were called, per-niza, the shrine of Lower Egypt (north), and per-ur, that of Upper Egypt (south). The Upper Egypt shrine appears to be animal shaped. The rising of the King, is the same word used to describe both sunrise and the King’s appearance: the verb h’ is written in the form of a hieroglyph which denotes the sun rising over the Primeval Hill or the Divine Emerging Island in which the first acts of creation took place."
   "The throne was described as the ‘mother of the King’ and by possessing the Queen, in whom the royal blood descended, the King’s title to the Two Lands was made absolute. As he mounted the steps to the throne, in the form of a hieroglyph which again denoted the Primeval Hill (like a step pyramid), and took his seat on it he became infused with the Kingship, from contact with powers with which the throne was charged. The King seem to descend from very distant times. One was called ‘The Herdsman of Nekhen,’ recalling an involvement of cattle people in ancient Hierakonpolis. The momentous event of the first appearance of the Lord of the Two Lands as to historians is 3200 B.C."

   Rice continues on page 98-100 "The Sumerians were earnest in the recording of long lists of their Kings, organized into city dynasties. They did not set them in a strict chronological sequence, or rather the sequence which they employed is misleading since many of the reigns they record as following one upon the other were in fact overlapping and coterminous."

   Then on page 101 "One of the early Egyptian sculptures (carving in bone or schist) represents a man endowed with dark and terrible powers, an early southern prince, a chief, a shaman or other practitioner of high magic, showing an elongated figure of a masked or hooded man from El Amra, from the Naqada I period. Men with the same enveloping hoods are depicted on early palettes. The high crown of the hood, may represent the origins of the tall white crown of the south." One statue which may represent a Pre-dynastic ruler from Hierakonpolis, though the figure has been interpreted as a woman, but the long robe is not typical of later Egyptian forms.

   Michael Rice in Chapter 3 page 114 promotes, "While the unification of Egypt is traditionally ascribed to Narmer, it is now generally accepted that he probably reunified the Two Lands, restoring the work of an earlier prince of his house, whose name is no longer known. The original unification may have taken place between 100 and 150 years before Narmer’s time." Who was this earlier prince whose name is no longer known?

Return to the Table of Contents - Chapter Four or
go to the next subject The Obverse Side of Narmer’s Palette - The Bull Interpretations or
go to the The Reverse Side of Narmer’s Palette - Upper, First and Second Registers